Expert medico – legal opinion : CV/Bio

These commentaries are based on Dr Gillman’s peer reviewed scientific papers, see Publications

Expert opinions

I only undertake analysis of opinions given in difficult cases where my expertise in the circumscribed areas specified below, in which I am considered a leading international authority, are of importance or relevance.  I do not do routine medico-legal work or clinical assessments of patients for medico-legal reports.

My fee for consultations and reports is AU$750 per hour, for a minimum fee of AU$4,500, for up to six hours work.

Current professional status

  1. Principal investigator and director at ‘PsychoTropical Research
  2. Chairman of the presiding council of the International MAOI expert group,
  3. Author of many published peer-reviewed research analyses on the above topics

My team and I publish papers in my areas of special expertise in the peer-reviewed scientific literature (see below).

I am regarded as being among the leading world authorities on serotonin toxicity, monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) antidepressant drugs and related topics.

I do pro bono work related to medical and patient education about psychotropic drugs via my website, videos, accredited seminars, and online consultations.

Brief CV/Bio

I graduated in 1974 from Guy’s Teaching Hospital medical school (London, UK) and undertook postgraduate study, specialist training, and clinical experience at Guy’s medical school and associated hospitals.  For six years, until 1981, I was training, and doing clinical practice, pharmacology research (see publications) and, latterly, teaching at Guy’s Hospital.

Qualified as a specialist in 1981 (MRCPsych UK)

1981-83:  Southampton University teaching hospital, latterly consultant psychiatrist on the professorial unit; previously, academic lecturer and senior registrar, professorial unit, Southampton University teaching hospital.  In charge of post-graduate education and the academic program, planning and advising on clinical research, and supervision and tutoring of specialists in training.

Moved to Australia June 1983

1983-2006: Private practice, in Mackay, Queensland

Visiting specialist Mackay Base (public) hospital 1983-1987

1985-2006: Director, psychiatric in-patient unit Pioneer Valley private hospital, general adult psychiatry.

For some years I practiced as the only specialist in this regional centre (population ~100,000).  I had extensive experience of dealing with a large workload entailing assessment and management responsibility 24/7 for patients on a wide variety of treatments including electroconvulsive therapy, monoamine oxidase inhibitors and all other forms of psychotropic drugs.  I also set up and managed two inpatient psychiatric units at private hospitals, which included the teaching and supervision of medical assistants, psychologists, pharmacists, occupational therapists, and nursing staff.

I provided consultation services to the police, including attendance at firearms sieges, attempted suicides, etc.

I continue to undertake medico-legal consultations and reports in my areas of special expertise.

I ceased medical patient-care practice in 2006 because of a medical problem causing hand-writing and keyboard-work difficulties.

Postgraduate teaching and website

I have taught at a postgraduate level throughout my career, teaching doctors, psychologists, pharmacists, etc.  Also, for more than twenty years I have maintained (and continue to maintain), on a pro bono basis, a website providing critical analysis of neuro-pharmacology research and expert information concerning drugs, drug interactions, serotonin toxicity and related subjects, and educational resources.  These are all for the benefit of both doctors and patients.

My website is internationally recognised for its excellence by both doctors and patients, who contact me from around the world for advice.

I held an adjunct (honorary) senior lecturer (Psychiatry) post at James Cook University, Townsville, Qld (relinquished as of 2006).

I continue to provide seminars and lectures to universities, teaching hospitals, professorial departments worldwide.

Research publications in scientific journals

I have more than 100 contributions to the scientific literature across the fields of pharmacology and psychiatry, predominantly relating to serotonin toxicity and MAOIs, related to side effects, drug interactions, and toxicity.

I have internationally recognised expertise in MAOIs, serotonin toxicity (aka serotonin syndrome), TCAs, hyper-thermic syndromes, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

Research publication information

A typical principal investigator, or professor, at a prestigious research university will have ~1,000 citations and an ‘H-index’ of ~14 (see e.g., Google scholar).  I have an H-index of 28 and a cumulative total of more than 4,500 citations.  I have about fifteen major single-author review papers that have been extensively cited (between 100-500 times); I am in about the 99.9th percentile of authors in the field of neuro-pharmacology, i.e., the top 0.1 percent of authors.

2006 to present: Academic work

I am widely recognised as a leading international authority on serotonin toxicity and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs).  I have provided independent reviews and legal opinions in relation to such matters, in the UK, USA, and in Australia.

I am the founder and convener of the International MAOI Expert Group; I am also the chairman of its presiding council.

Under my guidance and chairmanship this group has published influential position statements and papers concerning the use of MAOI drugs [1, 2].

I am an invited expert-participant in the Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the US (MHAUS) expert group.

I act as an occasional referee for various journals.

Most of my publications concern human clinical neuro-pharmacology, with particular reference to drug mechanisms of action and effectiveness, interactions between drugs, and toxicity.

Most of my scientific publications are referenced in the NLM database

Google scholar also lists my references [and current citation totals].  My scholar profile is public.

Recent major review papers

I have produced a large body of original research analyses, mostly concerning serotonin toxicity, MAOIs and TCAs.  Most of my major papers are single-author review papers published in journals of high prestige and impact; they have been extensively cited (in the top 1% of all cited papers, see link to ‘Google Scholar’ above).

The list below of some 80 contributions to the literature is largely comprised of recent review papers, and other salient publications.




Scientific Papers by Dr Gillman


  1. Van den Eynde, V., P.K. Gillman, and B.B. Blackwell, The Prescriber’s Guide to the MAOI Diet-Thinking Through Tyramine Troubles. Psychopharmacol Bull, 2022. 52(2): p. 73-116
  2. Van den Eynde, V., W.R. Abdelmoemin, M.M. Abraham, J.D. Amsterdam, I.M. Anderson, C. Andrade, G.B. Baker, A.T.F. Beekman, M. Berk, T.K. Birkenhager, B.B. Blackwell, P. Blier, M.B.J. Blom, J.A. Bodkin, C.I. Cattaneo, B. Dantz, J. Davidson, B.W. Dunlop, R.F. Estevez, S.S. Feinberg, J.P.M. Finberg, L.J. Fochtmann, D. Gotlib, A. Holt, T.R. Insel, J.K. Larsen, R. Mago, D.B. Menkes, J.M. Meyer, D.J. Nutt, G. Parker, M.D. Rego, E. Richelson, H.G. Ruhe, J. Saiz-Ruiz, S.M. Stahl, T. Steele, M.E. Thase, S. Ulrich, A. van Balkom, E. Vieta, I. Whyte, A.H. Young, and P.K. Gillman, The prescriber’s guide to classic MAO-inhibitors (phenelzine, tranylcypromine, isocarboxazid) for treatment-resistant depression. CNS Spectr, 2022: p. 1-49
  3. Van den Eynde, V., P.K. Gillman, T. Birkenhagen, E. Ruhe, and G. Parker, On the origins of MAOI misconceptions: reaffirming their role in melancholic depression Psychopharm Bull, 2022: p. in press
  4. Van den Eynde, V. and P.K. Gillman, Causality is the missing key: a comment on the history of MAOIs and RCTs. Journal of Affective Disorders, 2022. 319: p. 670–671
  5. Van den Eynde, V. and P.K. Gillman, Requiem or resurrection: Classic monoamine oxidase inhibitors revisited.Eur Neuropsychopharmacol, 2022. 61: p. 15-16
  6. Van den Eynde, V. and P.K. Gillman, MAOI or ECT? Patient preference and joint decision-making in treatment-resistant depression. Curr Treat Options Psych, 2022: p.
  7. Ramsay, R.R. and P.K. Gillman, Prepared mind leads to life-saving medical advice. The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2021: p.
  8. Van den Eynde, V. and P.K. Gillman, The larger than linear effect of high-dose tyramine on systolic blood pressure – the MAOI diet modified. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract, 2020: p. Apr 17;1. doi: 10.1080/13651501.2020.1743863.
  9. Van den Eynde, V. and P.K. Gillman, A critial appraisal of ‘Hypertensive crisis following the administration of tedizolid: possible serotonin syndrome’. Eur J Hosp Pharm, 2020. 27(1): p. 52-54
  10. Gillman, P.K., S. Feinberg, and L. Fochtmann, Revitalizing monoamine oxidase inhibitors: A call for action.CNS spectrums, 2019. 25(4): p. 452-454
  11. Gillman, P.K., Update on recent serotonin toxicity publications including comment on, ‘Conundrums in neurology: Diagnosing serotonin syndrome – a meta-analysis of cases’. PsychoTropical Commentaries, 2018. 18(8): p. 1-12
  12. Gillman, P.K., A reassesment of the safety profile of monoamine oxidase inhibitors: elucidating tired old tyramine myths. J Neural Transm (Vienna), 2018. 125(11): p. 1707-1717
  13. Gillman, P.K., “Much ado about nothing”: monoamine oxidase inhibitors, drug interactions, and dietary tyramine. CNS Spectr, 2017: p. 1-3
  14. Rosenbaum, H. and P.K. Gillman, Patient Safety and Methylene Blue-Associated Severe Serotonin Toxicity.A&A Case Reports, 2016. 7(1): p.
  15. Gillman, P.K., Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: A review concerning dietary tyramine and drug interactions.PsychoTropical Commentaries, 2016. 16(8): p. 1-99 Available at: Accessed June 17, 2016.
  16. Top, W.M., P.K. Gillman, C.J. de Langen, and A. Kooy, Fatal methylene blue associated serotonin toxicity. Neth J Med, 2014. 72(3): p. 179-81
  17. Gillman, P.K., Atypical antipsychotics: where is the science, where is the evidence? The Carlat Psychiatry Report, 2013. 11(1): p. 3-5
  18. Gillman, P.K., Methylene blue and serotonin reuptake inhibitors – an update. Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists Bulletin, 2012. June: p. 43
  19. Gillman, P.K., Advances pertaining to the pharmacology and interactions of irreversible nonselective monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 2011. 31(1): p. 66-74
  20. Gillman, P.K., CNS toxicity involving methylene blue: the exemplar for understanding and predicting drug interactions that precipitate serotonin toxicity. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 2011. 25(3): p. 429-3
  21. Finberg, J. and P. Gillman, Pharmacology of MAO-B inhibitors and the cheese reaction, in International Review of Neurobiology, M. Youdim and P. Riederer, Editors. 2011, Elsevier Inc. Academic Press.: Burlington. p. 169-190.
  22. Gillman, P.K., Hyperthermic Fatalities of Uncertain Cause. Neuropathology, 2010. 31: p. 306–307 (published online: 14 Mar 2011)
  23. Gillman, P.K., Methylene Blue and Serotonin Toxicity: Definite Causal Link. Psychosomatics, 2010. 51(5): p. 448-9
  24. Gillman, P.K., Interaction of temperature regulation mechanisms. Lancet, 2010. 376(9737): p. 233-4
  25. Gillman, P.K., Neuroleptic malignant syndrome: half a century of uncertainty suggests a Chimera.Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 2010. 19(8): p. 876-7
  26. Gillman, P.K., Bupropion, Bayesian logic and Serotonin Toxicity. Medical Toxicology, 2010. 6: p. 276-7
  27. Gillman, P.K., Multiple triggers for NMS. Australas Psychiatry, 2010. 18(3): p. 266
  28. Gillman, P.K., Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, poor science and inaccurate measurements. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 2010: p. 20 May 2010, 10.1177/0269881110367461
  29. Gillman, P.K., Combining antidepressants: Understanding Drug Interactions is the Sine Qua Non. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 2010. 16: p. 76-78
  30. Gillman, P.K., In Reference to Parathyroid Surgery and Methylene Blue: a Review with Guidelines for Safe Intraoperative Use. Laryngoscope, 2010. 120(2): p. 436-7
  31. Gillman, P.K., The Nature of Hyperthermia in Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome and the Use of Bromocriptine. J Med Toxicol, 2010. 6: p. 272–273
  32. Gillman, P.K., Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome: Mechanisms, Interactions and Causality. Movement Disorders, 2010. 25(12): p. 1780-1790
  33. Stanford, S.C., B.J. Stanford, and P.K. Gillman, Risk of severe serotonin toxicity following co-administration of methylene blue and serotonin reuptake inhibitors: an update on a case report of post-operative delirium. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 2009. 24(10): p. 1433-1438
  34. Schwiebert, C., C. Irving, and P.K. Gillman, Small doses of methylene blue, previously considered safe, can precipitate serotonin toxicity. Anaesthesia, 2009. 64: p. 924-924

  1. Gillman, P.K., Triptans, Serotonin Agonists, and Serotonin Syndrome (Serotonin Toxicity): A Review.Headache, 2009. 50(2): p. 264-272
  2. Gillman, P.K., Lessons continue: serotonin toxicity. Consulting Pharmacy, 2009. 24: p. 398-399
  3. Gillman, P.K., Fentanyl and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 2009: p.
  4. Gillman, P.K., Is there sufficient evidence to suggest cyclobenzaprine might be implicated in causing serotonin toxicity? American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 2009. 27(4): p. 509-510

  1. Gillman, P.K., Mechanisms, management and measurement in atropine induced hyperthermia. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 2009. 37(2): p. 322-323
  2. Gillman, K., In response to Morris et al.’s “Neuroleptic malignant syndrome developing after acute overdose with olanzapine and chlorpromazine”. Journal of Medical Toxicology, 2009. 5(4): p. 259-259
  3. Gillman, P.K., Methylene blue is a potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor. Can J Anaesth, 2008. 55(5): p. 311-2
  4. Ramsay, R.R., C. Dunford, and P.K. Gillman, Methylene blue and serotonin toxicity: inhibition of monoamine oxidase A (MAO A) confirms a theoretical prediction. Br J Pharmacol, 2007. 152(6): p. 946-51
  5. Gillman, P.K., Tricyclic antidepressant pharmacology and therapeutic drug interactions updated. British Journal of Pharmacology 2007. 151(6): p. 737-48

  1. Gillman, P.K., Methylene Blue: A Risk for Serotonin Toxicity. Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists Bulletin, 2008. 17: p. 36
  2. Peterson, G., S. Jackson, M. Naunton, and P.K. Gillman, Beware of anticholinergics in the elderly: delirious dangers of the deadly nightshade. Journal of Pharmacy, 2006. 25: p. 882-884
  3. Lawrence, K.R., M. Adra, and P.K. Gillman, Serotonin Toxicity Associated with the Use of Linezolid: A Review of Postmarketing Data. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2006. 42: p. 1578-83
  4. Gillman, P.K., Methylene Blue implicated in potentially fatal serotonin toxicity. Anaesthesia, 2006. 61: p. 1013-1014
  5. Gillman, P.K., Extracting value from case reports: lessons from serotonin toxicity. Anaesthesia, 2006. 61: p. 419-422
  6. Gillman, P.K., A systematic review of the serotonergic effects of mirtazapine: implications for its dual action status. Human Psychopharmacology. Clinical and Experimental, 2006. 21(2): p. 117-25
  7. Gillman, P.K., A review of serotonin toxicity data: implications for the mechanisms of antidepressant drug action. Biological Psychiatry, 2006. 59(11): p. 1046-51
  8. Gillman, P.K., Drug interactions and fluoxetine: a commentary from a clinician’s perspective. Ex Op Drug Saf, 2005. 4: p. 965-969
  9. Gillman, P.K., More misleading case reports. Anaesthesia, 2005: p.
  10. Gillman, P.K., Misleading cases. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 2005. 6: p. 422-3
  11. Gillman, P.K., Understanding toxidromes: serotonin toxicity. A commentary on Montanes-Rada et al. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 2005. 25: p. 625-626
  12. Gillman, P.K., NMS and ST: chalk and cheese. British Medical Journal, 2005: p.
  13. Gillman, P.K., Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 2005. 95(4): p. 434-441
  14. Gillman, P.K. and I.M. Whyte, Serotonin syndrome, in Adverse Syndromes and Psychiatric Drugs, P. Haddad, S. Dursun, and B. Deakin, Editors. 2004, Oxford University Press: Oxford. p. 37-49.
  15. Gillman, P.K., Making sense of serotonin toxicity reports. A comment on Chopra et al. World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 2004. 5: p. 166-167
  16. Gillman, P.K., Defining toxidromes: serotonin toxicity and neuroleptic malignant syndrome: A comment on Kontaxakis et al. Archives of General Hospital Psychiatry, 2004: p.
  17. Gillman, P.K., The spectrum concept of serotonin toxicity. Pain Medicine, 2004. 5: p. 231-2
  18. Gillman, P.K., Moclobemide and the risk of serotonin toxicity (or serotonin syndrome). Central Nervous System Drug Reviews, 2004. 10: p. 83-85
  19. Gillman, P.K., Mirtazapine: unable to induce serotonin toxicity? Clinical Neuropharmacology, 2003. 26: p. 288-289
  20. Gillman, P.K., Linezolid and serotonin toxicity. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2003. 37: p. 1274-5
  21. Gillman, P.K., Amitriptyline: Dual-Action Antidepressant? Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 2003. 64: p. 1391
  22. Gillman, P.K., Relative toxicity of antidepressants. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 1999. 33: p. 444
  23. Gillman, P.K., Commentary: clomipramine too soon after moclobemide. Review of Psychiatry, 1999. 4: p. 3-5
  24. Gillman, P.K., The serotonin syndrome and its treatment. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 1999. 13(1): p. 100-9
  25. Gillman, P.K. and S. Hodgens, Serotonin syndrome following SSRI mono-therapy. Human Psychopharmacology. Clinical and Experimental, 1998. 13: p. 525-526
  26. Gillman, P.K., Serotonin Syndrome: History and Risk. Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology, 1998. 12(5): p. 482-491
  27. Gillman, P.K., Serotonin syndrome treated with chlorpromazine. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 1997. 17: p. 128-129
  28. Gillman, P.K., Ecstasy, serotonin syndrome and the treatment of hyperpyrexia. Medical Journal of Australia, 1997. 167: p. 109-111
  29. Gillman, P.K., Serotonin syndrome: clomipramine too soon after moclobemide. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 1997. 12: p. 339-342
  30. Gillman, P.K., Successful treatment of serotonin syndrome with chlorpromazine. Medical Journal of Australia, 1996. 165: p. 345
  31. Gillman, P.K., Possible serotonin syndrome with moclobemide and pethidine. Medical Journal of Australia, 1995. 162: p. 554
  32. Gillman, P.K., MAOIs and dangerousness. Australian Prescriber, 1994. 17(2): p. 29
  33. Gillman, P.K., J.R. Bartlett, P.K. Bridges, B.D. Kantamaneni, and G. Curzon, Relationships between tryptophan concentrations in human plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and cerebral cortex following tryptophan infusion.Neuropharmacology, 1980. 19(12): p. 1241-2
  34. Curzon, G., B.D. Kantamaneni, P. Van Boxel, P.K. Gillman, J.R. Bartlett, and P.K. Bridges, Substances related to 5-hydroxytryptamine in plasma and in lumbar and ventricular fluids of psychiatric patients. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 1980. 280: p. 3-20
  35. Carter, S.M., B.L. Goodwin, M. Sandler, P.K. Gillman, and P.K. Bridges, Decreased conjugated tyramine output in depression: the effect of oral L-cysteine. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 1980. 10(3): p. 305-8


Letters & Instructions

Consider Donating to PsychoTropical

PsychoTropical is funded solely through generous donations, which has enabled extensive development and improvement of all associated activities. Many people who follow the advice on the website will save enormously on doctors, treatment costs, hospitalization, etc. which in some cases will amount to many thousands of dollars, even tens of thousands — never mind all the reduction in suffering and the resultant destruction of family, work, social, and leisure capability. A donation of $100, or $500, is little compared to those savings. Some less-advantaged people feel that the little they can give is so small it won’t make a difference – but five dollars monthly helps: so, do not think that a little donation is not useful.

– Dr Ken Gillman

Dr Ken Gillman